PAGE EDITORS: Alex McDowell, Matias Lirman

Natland Note: (2/27/14)
  • So far, the only stuff posted is my stuff - be sure to get to this soon! We had talked about having this section done by today (2/27)!
  • Remember to post pictures and videos with captions, create a video, good/useful websites, etc.


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Concept Problems to Look Over:
pg 366 #2,3
pg 367 #4,5
pg 368 #8,9
pg 384 #2
pg 400 #2,3,4,5,7
pg 405 #10

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Caption: "Astrophysicists have uncovered a great deal of compelling evidence over the past hundred years to support the Big Bang theory. Among this evidence is the observation that the universe is expanding. By looking at light emitted by distant galaxies, scientists have found that these galaxies are rapidly moving away from our galaxy, the Milky Way. An explosion like the Big Bang, which sent matter flying outward from a point, explains this observation.
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Did you know that the static on your television is caused by radiation left over from the Big Bang?

Another critical discovery was the observation of low levels of microwaves throughout space. Astronomers believe these microwaves, whose temperature is about -270 degrees Celsius, are the remnants of the extremely high-temperature radiation produced by the Big Bang.

Interestingly, astronomers can get an idea of how hot the universe used to be by looking at very distant clouds of gas through high-power telescopes. Because light from these clouds can take billions of years to reach our telescopes, we see such bodies as they appeared eons ago. Lo and behold, these ancient clouds of gas seem to be hotter than younger clouds.

In the first few minutes after the Big Bang, the universe was far hotter -- billions of billions of billions of degrees hotter -- than anywhere in the universe today. This heat gave particles of matter in the early universe an extraordinary amount of energy, causing them to behave in a much different way from particles in the universe today. For example, particles moved much faster back then and collided into one another with much greater energy.
If these conditions do not exist anymore, how do scientists study the behavior of matter in the early universe? One of the most powerful tools for such analysis is the particle accelerator. This device allows physicists to recreate conditions just after the Big Bang by making a beam of fast-moving particles and bringing them together in very high-energy collisions."
(CERN on ideas related to the Big Bang)

Coldest Temperature on Earth Reached in an MIT lab

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Caption: Since the hand is so hot relative to the liquid nitrogen, an insulating layer of nitrogen gas forms- a phenomenon known as the Leiden-frost effect.

Coke can into liquid nitrogen?

Balloon animals in liquid nitrogen? You must be joking...

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Caption: Gaps present to compensate for thermal expansion/contraction

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Caption: Images show the thermal expansion of train tracks on a hot day

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Problem: To make a secure fit, rivets that are larger that the rivet hole are often used. This rivet is cooled, usually in dry ice, before it is placed in the hole. A steel rivet 1.871 cm in diameter at 20 degrees-C is to be placed in a hole with a diameter of 1.869 cm. To what temperature must the rivet be cooled to fit in the hole?

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Caption: When a Concorde flew faster than the speed of sound, thermal expansion due to the rubbing by passing air increased the aircraft's length by about 12.5 cm. (The temperature increased to about 128°C at the aircraft nose and about 90°C at the tail, and cabin windows were noticeably warm to the touch.)

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Caption: All forms of light in a given medium will travel at the same speed (but the wavelengths and corresponding frequencies will be the same)! The speed of light in a vacuum is 3 x 10^8 m/s, so if you multiply the power the wavelength and the corresponding frequency in the able above, you will always get 10^8!

Other way to view it:
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Caption: Spectrum of the sun compared to the spectrum of "sensitivity" of our eyes to wavelength. What do you notice?

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Caption: If a welders do not have proper protection, they can get a sunburn INDOORS because what they are welding gets so hot it gives off UV light - and it can be pretty severe.
Caption: The giant hornet Vespa mandarinia japonica preys on Japanese bees. However, if one of the hornets attempts to invade a beehive, several hundred of the bees quickly form a compact ball around the hornet to stop it. They don't sting, bite, crush, or suffocate it. Rather they overheat it by quickly raising their body temperatures from the normal 35°C to 47°C or 48°C, which is lethal to the hornet but not to the bees (the primary loss of energy by the ball is by thermal radiation).

Caption: To withstand the harsh weather of the Antarctic, emperor penguins huddle in groups to decrease their rate of energy transfer through radiation.

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Caption: Snake eating a mouse (false-color infrared image). This shows the difference between a cold and warm-blooded creatures in the IR spectrum.

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Caption: Scorpion in the visible light spectrum, and the IR spectrum.

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To the left is an infrared image of a metal cup holding a very hot drink. Notice the rings of color showing heat traveling from the liquid through the metal cup. You can see this in the metal spoon as well. To the right is an infrared image of a melting ice cube. Notice the rings of color showing how the melt water warms as it travels away from the cube. Although the ice cube is cold, it still puts out heat, as you can see by matching the color of the ice cube with its temperature.

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Caption: False-color image of a polar bear in the IR!

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Caption: Thermography helped to determine the temperature profile of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system during re-entry.

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Caption: A rattlesnake's face has thermal radiation detectors, allowing the snake to strike at an animal even in complete darkness.

Thermal radiation is involved in the numerous medical cases of a dead rattlesnake striking a hand reaching toward it. Pits between each eye and nostril of a rattlesnake (Fig. 18-21) serve as sensors of thermal radiation. When, say, a mouse moves close to a rattlesnake's head, the thermal radiation from the mouse triggers these sensors, causing a reflex action in which the snake strikes the mouse with its fangs and injects its venom. The thermal radiation from a reaching hand can cause the same reflex action even if the snake has been dead for as long as 30 min because the snake's nervous system continues to function. As one snake expert advised, if you must remove a recently killed rattlesnake, use a long stick rather than your hand.

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Caption:Two types of infrared photography - for art form and for science! On the right is "infrared Andromeda"...the host of 1 trillion stars (10^15 stars...)


Caption: "Active-infrared night vision : the camera illuminates the scene at infrared wavelengths invisible to the human eye. Despite a dark back-lit scene, active-infrared night vision delivers identifying details, as seen on the display monitor."

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Caption: Another interesting fact about infrared light is that it can travel through thick smoke, dust or fog, and even some materials.
Above is a visible (left) and infrared (right) view of a person's hand inside a black plastic bag. In the visible image, the hand cannot be seen. In the infrared image, however, the heat from the hand can travel through the bag and can be seen by an infrared camera. Infrared light can pass through many materials which visible light cannot pass through. However, the reverse is also true. There are some materials which can pass visible light but not infrared. Notice the man's glasses! Infrared cannot travel through glass. Since this man's body heat cannot travel through his glasses, they appear dark.


Caption: This shows the spectrum of different waves emitted by the sun, but it also shows the wavelengths of the infrared waves and what allows for visibility.


thermal view of the world


comparison of different volumes at room temperature


Caption: This diagram throws the three different types of heat transfer in one scenario.

Caption: This diagram gives an example of a convection cell. We see the warm air rising from the radiator then falling back to the floor as cool air.

exothermic and endothermic processes with water


the difference in molecule movement with different amounts of energy

heat transfer systems during the daytime and nighttime



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WEBSITES: (6:45)
("Infrared: More Than Your Eyes Can See" created by Cal TECH)
(heat tendencies)
(instant classic)
(superheated steam)
(interesting article on quantum computers related to temperature)
(good description of heat and interesting picture of heat cycles)
(good overview on the basic methods of heat transfer)
(interesting article talking about how magnetic fields are solving problems and boundaries of heat transfer)
(really cool article about the discovery of what was emitting this excess of infrared light off of stars) (6:38)
("Mystery of St. Rupert's Drop at 130,000 fps: Smarter Every Day")

(Big Bang Scaling and neat visualizations about order of magnitude)
(hand in liquid nitrogen)!tab=industries
(uses of liquid nitrogen)
(infrared photography)
(some of the infrared images)
(EM spectrum images)
(IR images from Cal TECH)
(spectrum of the sun picture)
(spectrum of sensitivity of the human eye)
(chart of wavelengths)